Cold Fusion Theory - a Simple Explanation "for Dummies" of How Cold Fusion Works
We are interested in Cold Fusion, or Low Energy Nuclear Reaction to produce Energy. What we call energy today, is measured in terms of heat. Throughout history certain things have been discovered about energy. Mainly, we learned that we can produce heat by using fuel. Since mankind first discovered fire we have been using it to produce heat. Although these things may seem too simple to mention, they will help a lot to understand the more ideas about producing nuclear energy.
To initiate the process that starts the fire, which burns the fuel, requires a catalyst of some sort. There are two types of catalysts. Striking a match, or striking two pieces of flint rock together, which produces a spark, is one kind. It generates something that is very like a tiny explosion, not unlike the explosive catalyst of the first Atomic bomb. The spark then ignites the fuel, like straw, then wood to burn a larger fire, and generate more heat. This is practical as long as we need the heat more than we need the fuel.
The other type of catalyst is spontaneous combustion, from heat itself. For instance using a magnifying glass on a sunny day concentrating on a point on a dried leaf or piece of straw,
it heats the spot until it smokes and burns and catches fire. Everything has a “burning temperature”. This requires initial heat energy. Using this similar idea, of creating explosive contact to spark, or heat to initiate the nuclear process is still the main source of energy from nuclear fission. Cold Fusion is distinguished in that although it may have heat as a component of the process, it does not require dangerous levels of heat. That is why they are called LENR.
The thing that has changed is mainly the fuel. Using a match or torch did not keep the heat going very long. Candles expanded the heat and last longer because they began burning the oil from the candle wax, as fuel. The world learned to burn oil bearing minerals, and oils of various kinds became the modern worlds preferred fuel. After the invention of the combustible engine, oil enabled all sorts of machinery and transportation devices. Today we still rely on oils for a main source of fuel. The greater need makes the fuel more and more valuable. Economically to be productive the energy produced must be more valuable than the energy it takes to produce it. This is why modern technology has looked to nuclear energy, because it has the potential to produce a great deal more energy that the energy put into the process.
There are already large numbers of nuclear plants in existence today all over the world. People ask “why would we now want to embark on a different way of generating nuclear energy“? Part of the difference is working with nature,
instead of against it. Nuclear plants are powered by nuclear fission which is not a natural process. Fission is produced by “splitting” heavy atoms. It uses radioactive elements uranium and plutonium to do so. Fission can generate energy which is millions of times greater energy than conventional fuels, like gasoline. It requires sufficient fuel, reaching high temperature and pressure inside an enclosed space. This Electromagnetic energy, many times more radioactive than the heavy fuel is then produced. The whole system must be contained because these elements can become part of their environment, the air, the water, or the earth. Their waste must also be contained, just like the reactors. However; the radioactive components may last over a hundred years, and certainly outlast the buried containers. This problem has not been solved.
Low Energy Nuclear Reactions are quite different. Even though they might appear to be small reactors like those used in fission, they use only “light” metals. These have only slight radioactive action when the process is ongoing and no nuclear waste to dispose of resulting from their process. There is no danger of “devastating nuclear accidents.” LENR rely on the natural tendency of the atoms to interact with each other. When the atoms are moving around without touching nothing happens. When the atoms come into contact with each other and touch, the attraction is too great and they merge.
Look at an atom as an egg in its fine membrane, without the hard shell. The yolk would
be the nucleolus except it is very much smaller, in comparison and very dense. It includes electrons spinning around it very fast. The rest of the egg, the clear part that makes up most of the atom, is comprised of an equal number of protons and neutrons. They fill the atom. The protons are positively charged and attracted to the other atoms protons. The neutrons have no charge, but act as a repelling force. Think of the protons as young people wanting to get together, and the neutron as a mother, a potential mother in law, keeping them apart.
When people are pushed together in a crowd, or when a large person steps into a full elevator they become pushed together, and some touch. Cold fusion uses pressure, to push the atoms together until they touch and a nuclear reaction takes place. This is the type of reaction expressed in the process theorized by Professor Sergio Focardi of the University of Bologna, used in the Energy Catalyzer designed
by Andrea A. Rossi. What makes the process work takes place as the process begins. After the initial heat rises which alters the form of some of the atoms. (This uses secret ingredients in the process.) The atoms are pushed together in the pressurized compartment and fusion begins which is also the catalyst which continues a chain reaction. Once the reactionary process becomes steady, it can be self sustaining or may be regulated at
a higher or lower level of energy output. Dr. Rossi has maintained a working E-Cat for over Two years heating one of his factories. A larger Energy Catalyst using a combination of smaller modules is about to be put in operation in the United States of america, which will be the real determinant of how well the new process will work for us all.